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Welcome!

Welcome to the Orthopaedic Manipulation website. OrthopaedicManipulation.com is a simple website to provide information to the trainees and practitioners of Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy. Orthopaedic Manipulative Therapy is a form of skilled, physical treatment used by Orthopaedic medicine specialists, Chiropractors, Osteopathic physicians, Osteopaths, Physical therapists to treat neuro-musculoskeletal conditions, restoring the lost ability to move and reduce disability. The American Association of Physical Therapy (APTA) has … Continue reading Welcome!

Kernig’s sign

Kernig’s sign Purpose: To determine if the patient has inflammation of the meninges (meningitis). Patient position: Lying supine (conventional practice). VM Kernig originally elicited this sign by having the patient in sitting position. Examiner position: Standing beside the bed, facing the patient. Procedure: With the patient lying supine, flex one of the patient’s legs (hip and knee joints) to 90 degrees, and then slowly extend … Continue reading Kernig’s sign

Brudziński’s symphyseal sign

Brudziński’s symphyseal sign Purpose: To determine if the patient has inflammation of the meninges (meningitis). Patient position: Lying supine. Examiner position: Standing beside the bed, facing the patient. Procedure: With the patient lying supine, place the heel of your hands on patient’s pubic symphysis and apply gentle pressure. Outcome: If this manoeuvre causes involuntary flexion of the patient’s hips and knees, and abduction of the … Continue reading Brudziński’s symphyseal sign

Brudziński’s obscure cheek sign

Brudziński’s obscure cheek sign Purpose: To determine if the patient has inflammation of the meninges (meningitis). Patient position: Lying supine. Examiner position: Standing beside the bed, facing the patient. Procedure: With the patient lying supine, apply pressure on both cheeks of the patient, inferior to the zygomatic arch. Outcome: Brudziński’s sign is a sign of meningeal irritation. If meningeal irritation is present, this manoeuvre causes … Continue reading Brudziński’s obscure cheek sign

Brudziński’s reciprocal contralateral reflex sign

Purpose: To determine if the patient has inflammation of the meninges (meningitis) (1). Patient position: Lying supine. Examiner position: Standing beside the bed, facing the patient. Procedure: First, place one of the patient’s leg (hip and knee joints) in flexion. A leg first placed in flexion causes a reflex, involuntary movement of extension after the passive flexion of the other leg (2). Outcome: Brudziński’s sign … Continue reading Brudziński’s reciprocal contralateral reflex sign

Brudziński’s contralateral reflex sign

Brudziński’s contralateral reflex sign Purpose: To determine if the patient has inflammation of the meninges (meningitis). Patient position: Lying supine. Examiner position: Standing beside the bed, facing the patient. Procedure: While having the patient lying supine on the bed with both legs extended, flex one of the patient’s legs (hip and knee joints) and bring the knee towards the chest. Outcome: Brudziński’s sign is a … Continue reading Brudziński’s contralateral reflex sign